The history of antimicrobial resistance and the important role diagnostics plays to combat it

By Chris Groke, PharmD, BCPS, BCIDP


Upon completion of this article, the reader will be able to: 

  1. Discuss the history of the discoveries and warnings of antibiotic use.
  2. List the agencies and organizations involved in the development of antibiotic stewardship programs.
  3. Identify the top microorganisms and antibiotics that contribute to AMR.
  4. Discuss the advances in antimicrobial laboratory testing and therapies and how they contribute to combatting AMR infections.

Chris Groke, PharmD, BCPS, BCIDP serves as a Senior Medical Science Liaison for bioMérieux US Medical Affairs Division. His background is an Infectious Diseases Clinical Pharmacist with over 35 years of pharmacy practice and management in many health-systems. His Doctor of Pharmacy is from the Medical University of South Carolina, and his Bachelor of Science is from Auburn University Harrison College of Pharmacy.

Not Enrolled

Course Includes

  • 1 Article
  • 1 Test
  • Course Certificate
  • MLO and Northern Illinois University (NIU), DeKalb, IL, are co-sponsors in offering continuing education units (CEUs) for this issue’s CE article. CEUs or contact hours are granted by the College of Health and Human Sciences at Northern Illinois University, which has been approved as a provider of continuing education programs in the clinical laboratory sciences by the ASCLS P.A.C.E.® program. Continuing education credits awarded for successful completion of this test are acceptable for the ASCP Board of Registry Continuing Competence Recognition Program. Readers who pass the test successfully (scoring 70% or higher) will receive a certificate for 1 contact hour of P.A.C.E.® credit. The fee for this continuing education test is $20. This test was prepared by Amanda Voelker, MPH, MT(ASCP), MLS, Clinical Education Coordinator, School of Health Studies, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL.

    Level of Instruction: Intermediate
    Passing scores of 70 percent or higher are eligible for 1 contact hour of P.A.C.E. credit. This test is no longer valid for CEUs after July 2025.

    NIU is approved as a provider of continuing education programs in the clinical laboratory sciences by the ASCLS P.A.C.E. ® Program.